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Friday, July 29

  1. page strange food around the world edited 10 Weird Food Delicacies From Around the World 1 – Birds Nest Soup, China {http://bna-art.s3.a…

    10 Weird Food Delicacies From Around the World
    1 – Birds Nest Soup, China
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/BirdsNestSoup.jpg} BirdsNestSoupYou wouldn’t necessarily think a birds nest would be edible, but the Chinese use Swifts’ nests to make this soup, known as the ‘Caviar of the East’. Right now you’re probably imagining a nest made out of twigs and leaves, but Swiftlets make their nests predominantly out of saliva.
    It’s something in the saliva of the bird that makes it have this unique gelatinous, rubbery texture and it’s one of the most expensive animal products consumed by humans. It’s expensive because the swiftlets build the nests during breeding season over a period of 35 days and nests can only be harvested around three times a year. The nests are typically built in coastal caves and collecting them is a treacherous process involving climbing and nimble skill, which adds to the hefty price tag.
    With an increase in demand for birds nest soup however, manmade nesting sites are often constructed. Hong Kong and the US are the largest importers of birds’ nests and a bowl of soup can cost around $30 to $100 per bowl, whilst a kilo of nest can cost between $2,000 and $10,000. The soup has been a tradition for centuries and is believed to be nutritious in proteins and minerals and have aphrodisiac qualities.
    2 – Fried tarantulas, Cambodia
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/FriedSpiders.jpg} FriedSpidersEensy weensy spider, climbing up the spout…if you suffer from arachnophobia you probably don’t want to try eating these eight legged monsters. They’re not tiny little house spiders, they’re great big tarantulas and you can buy them in the streets of Skuon, Cambodia.
    They’re fried whole – legs, fangs and all. They were first discovered by starving Cambodians in the bloody, brutal days of the Khmer Rouge rule and have gone from being the vital sustenance of these people to a delicacy tourists come far and wide to try.
    The black hairy arachnids found in the jungle around the market town of Skuon have become a source of fame and fortune for the region as bus loads of people stop to try them on their way to other places. They cost only a few cents and supposedly taste delicious, as they are best plucked straight from the burrow and pan fried with a bit of garlic and salt. They’re supposed to taste a bit like crickets or scrawny chickens and are crispy on the outside with a gooey body on the inside.
    3 – Puffer fish, Japan
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/Fugu.jpg} FuguYou’ve got to be careful with this delicacy or you might end up in the morgue. The deadly Puffer fish, or fugu, however is the ultimate delicacy in Japan even though its skin and insides contain the poisonous toxin todrotoxin, which is 1,250 times stronger than cyanide.
    That’s why in Japan only expert chefs in licensed restaurants are allowed to prepare it. Otherwise you’re likely to become paralysed whilst still conscious and eventually die from asphyxiation because there is no known antidote.
    Fifteen people died in Thailand when the fish was made illegal and people started dying it pink and passing it off as salmon.
    4 – Balut, Phillipines
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/Balut.jpg} BalutA bit like with a Kinder Surprise, you certainly will be surprised to open these eggs, though not in the same pleasant way as finding a toy inside. You get to eat your chicken and your egg at the same time with Balut.
    Fertilized eggs are boiled just before they’re due to hatch, so your yolk oozes out followed by… a chicken (or duck) foetus. They are cooked when the foetus is anywhere from 17 days to 21 days depending on your preference, although when the egg is older the foetus begins to have a beak, claws, bones and feathers.
    In Filipino culture Balut is almost as popular as the hot dog in America and street vendors yell out ‘Baluuuuuuut’ as they push their carts down the street. They are popularly believed to boost the libido and are also a hearty snack full of protein. Balut are usually guzzled down with beer and are prepared with a pinch of salt, lemon juice, black pepper and coriander, although some Balut eaters prefer it with chili and vinegar. The way to eat Balut is to crack open the egg, sip the broth and then eat the yolk and foetus…it’s not everyone’s cup of tea, but apparently it’s delicious.
    5 – Casu Marzu, Sardinia
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/CasuMarzu.jpg} CasuMarzuThis Sardinian cheese is a cheese with a difference; it’s riddled with insect larvae. “Casu Marzu” means ‘rotten cheese’ and is most commonly referred to as ‘maggot cheese.’ It’s now banned for health reasons but can still be available on the black market in Sardinia and Italy.
    The sheep’s milk cheese is basically Pecorino, which has had the larvae of the cheese fly, Piophila casei, introduced to it. Fermentation occurs as the larvae digest the cheese fats, and the texture becomes very soft with some liquid seeping out. The cheese has to be eaten when the maggots are still alive because when they are dead it is considered to be toxic.
    Since the larvae can jump if they are disturbed, diners have to shield their eyes or place the cheese in a sealed paper bag until the maggots are starved of oxygen and die. Health issues have arisen in relation to Casu Marzu, including reports of allergic reactions and the danger of consuming cheese that has advanced to a toxic state. There’s also some risk of intestinal larval infection.
    6 – Surstromming, Sweden
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/Surstromming.jpg} SurstrommingOne of the world’s strangest dishes can be found in Sweden. Surstomming is fermented Baltic herring and can be found on supermarket shelves all over the country, although you probably won’t see it next to the Ikea meatballs.
    The herring is caught in spring when it is just about to spawn and is fermented in barrels for one to two months before it is tinned where the fermentation continues for several months. The cans often bulge during shipping and storage because of the continued fermentation process.
    Certain airlines have in fact banned these cans from being taken on flights, as they consider the pressurized cans to be potentially dangerous, like fireworks and explosives. When the can is opened the smell is usually what will get to you first as the fermented fish has a really strong odour. It’s usually eaten with a type of flat crispy bread and boiled potatoes. Sometimes people drink milk with it, but beer and water are often used to guzzle it down.
    7 – Live Octopus, Korea
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/Octopus.jpg} OctopusIn Korea Sannakji is a raw dish consisting of live octopus. The octopus is cut into pieces whilst still alive, lightly seasoned with sesame oil and served immediately whilst the tentacles can still be seen squirming on the plate.
    Eating live octopus is a challenge not only mentally trying to get your head round eating something that’s still alive, but physically, as the tentacles stick to any surface they touch. You actually have to fight with your food before you can devour it and savour its taste.
    The first hurdle is to get the tentacles off your chopsticks, and once the octopus is in your mouth it will suction to your teeth, the roof of your mouth and your tongue essentially trying to preserve its own life. It is supposedly enjoyable to experience the party in your mouth as the tentacles wriggle around and stick to your mouth as you chew it. Special care should be taken to chew thoroughly, however, because if the suction cups stick to the mouth or throat, this can be a choking hazard.
    8 – Kopi Luwak, Indonesia
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/KopiLuwak.jpg} KopiLuwakYou might want to think twice if someone offers you a cup of this coffee when you pop round to their house. Kopi Luwak is the rarest, most expensive gourmet coffee in the world. Sounds divine right? It’s actually made from the excrements of an Indonesian cat-like creature called the Luwak.
    The Luwak eats only the ripest coffee cherries but its stomach can’t digest beans inside them, so they come out whole. The coffee that results from this process is said to be like no other, and the stomach acids and enzymes that perform the fermentation of the beans give the coffee a special aroma.
    This process takes place on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi in the Indonesian Archipelago. With an expensive price tag of anywhere between US$120 – $300 per pound, you might want to start saving now if you want to try this gourmet coffee.
    9 – Puffin Heart, Iceland
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/Puffin.jpg} PuffinSometimes referred to as the ‘clown of the ocean’ or ‘sea parrot’, the puffin, with its colourful beak and clumsy behaviour, is considered an adorable bird. The sight of a puffin flapping its wings and jumping from a cliff to generate enough lift to become airborne is enough to make anyone go ‘aaaah’.
    In Iceland, however, these seabirds have been a source of sustenance for Icelanders on the islands for centuries. Iceland is home to one of the world’s largest colonies of puffins and ‘sky fishing’ is a sport which involves catching the low flying birds in a big net.
    The best place to catch a puffin or two is in the Westman Islands, where they are sustainably harvested to prevent them from coming extinct. The heart of a puffin is eaten raw whilst it is still warm in traditional Icelandic delicacy.
    Puffins are eaten by breaking their necks, skinning them and then eating the fresh heart raw. Puffin is supposed to be delicious like a fishier version of chicken or duck. It is often smoked, grilled or pan-fried. TV chef Gordon Ramsey caused quite a stir when he was seen eating this rare delicacy on TV.
    10 – Snake Wine, Vietnam
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/SnakeWine.jpg} SnakeWineFancy some wine with a difference? A bouquet of snake with some snake blood notes perhaps? Snake wine is a bottle of rice wine with a venomous snake inside and has ‘medicinal purposes’, but is probably more useful for display purposes than to drink.
    The snake is left to steep in the rice wine for many months to let the poison dissolve in the wine. The ethanol makes the venom inactive so it is not dangerous, and snake wine supposedly has many health benefits. It has a slightly pink colour like a nice rose because of the snake blood in there.
    It originated in Vietnam, where snakes are thought to possess medicinal qualities, but it has spread to other parts of South East Asia and Southern China. Snake blood wine on the other hand is made by slicing the belly of the snake to let the blood drain into the wine and this is served immediately.
    strange food around the world

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  2. page Integrating culture, language and technology. edited Abstract This article reports the findings from a longitudinal assessment following a three-year …
    Abstract
    This article reports the findings from a longitudinal assessment following a three-year project of faculty training in the design and development of interactive, multimedia courseware for the study of second languages and cultures. A multidisciplinary approachmultidisciplinary approach A term referring to the philosophy of converging multiple specialties and/or technologies to establish a diagnosis or effect a therapy
    ..... Click the link for more information. to faculty development included training in language acquisition theories, cultural studies, instructional design Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. The process consists broadly of determining the current state of learner understanding, defining the end goal of and computing skills. Participating faculty were awarded stipends to travel to the target countries and afterwardaf·ter·ward also af·ter·wards
    adv.
    At a later time; subsequently.
    Adv. 1. afterward - happening at a time subsequent to a reference time; "he apologized subsequently"; "he's going to the store but he'll be back here
    ..... Click the link for more information. employ authentic materials for the authoring of interactive coursewareInteractive CourseWare - (ICW) A training program controlled by a computer that relies on trainee input to determine the order and pace of instruction delivery. The trainee advances through the sequence of instructional events by making decisions and selections.
    ..... Click the link for more information.. The author's examination of the potential of a cognitive apprenticeship Cognitive apprenticeship is a theory of the process where a master of a skill teaches that skill to an apprentice.
    Constructivist approaches to human learning have led to the development of a theory of cognitive apprenticeship [1]. model for the study of culture is based on the analysis of faculty and students' perceptions of the effectiveness of the courseware. Parts of this study were presented at the 10th International CALL Conference "CALL Professionals and the Future of CALL Research" at the University of Antwerp University of Antwerp (Dutch: Universiteit Antwerpen) is a university located in Antwerp, Belgium. History
    It was founded in 2003 after the merger of the three universities that were previously known as RUCA (State University Centre Antwerp), UFSIA (University Faculties , Belgium, 2002.
    Background
    Most scholars recognize that "A language is part of culture and a culture is part of language; the two are intricately interwovenin·ter·weave
    v. in·ter·wove , in·ter·wo·ven , inter·weav·ing, inter·weaves
    v.tr.
    1. To weave together.
    2. To blend together; intermix.
    v.intr. such that one cannot separate the two without losing the significance of either language or culture" (Brown, 1987). In the past four decades, researchers have been proposing models for integrating culture and language in second language (L2) instruction (Born, 1975; Lafayette, 1988; Ballman, 1997). However, Moore (1996) found that these models have not been widely adopted, and the teaching of culture (C2) is frequently limited to cultural notes in the language textbook. Quinn Allen (2000) argues that because of limited experiences living in the C2, many teachers lack familiarity with and understanding of C2, as well as training on how to integrate L2 and C2 in formal instruction.
    Can technology help integrate L2 and C2 in formal teaching? According toaccording to
    prep.
    1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
    2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
    3. Furstenberg and Morgenstern (1992), one of the goals of new technologies is to "immerseim·merse
    tr.v. im·mersed, im·mers·ing, im·mers·es
    1. To cover completely in a liquid; submerge.
    2. To baptize by submerging in water.
    3. the learners in a completely authentic world, giving them the tools and tasks to understand and interpret the linguistic and cultural reality around them ..." (p. 119). At the same time, technology is not a new teaching tool, but rather one that holds a potential for "making languages come alive for our students" (Iskold & Pearce, 1996). A review of research literature in the field indicates that theories of L2 acquisition, cognitive-theoretical views on L2 learning, and socioculturalso·ci·o·cul·tur·al
    adj.
    Of or involving both social and cultural factors.
    so {http://img.tfd.com/hm/GIF/lprime.gif} ci·o·cul approaches to L2 teaching provide a theoretical foundation for the integration of linguistic and cognitive skillscognitive skill Psychology Any of a number of acquired skills that reflect an individual's ability to think; CSs include verbal and spatial abilities, and have a significant hereditary component with culture (Salaberry, 1996).
    One of the current challenges for institutions of higher learninghigher learning
    n.
    Education or academic accomplishment at the college or university level. is to bring faculty into the world of technology not only as consumers, but also as researchers and developers of new instructional materials. At our undergraduate liberal arts college Liberal arts colleges are primarily colleges with an emphasis upon undergraduate study in the liberal arts. The Encyclopædia Britannica Concise offers the following definition of the liberal arts as a, "college or university curriculum aimed at imparting general knowledge , an initial three-year (1995-97) grant provided faculty training in the development of multimedia courseware to complement elementary L2 learning outside of the classroom. The faculty development program integrated theories of L2 acquisition, instructional design, and multimedia authoring using Asymetrix ToolBook. In line with contemporary views regarding the benefits of authentic materials for L2 teaching summarized by Omaggio Hadley (1993), and in an attempt to resolve copyright problems, participating faculty were awarded stipends to travel to C2 countries and bring back authentic materials to be used in the courseware. The sociocultural approach to language learning, which places L2 acquisition in a context of social practices, has recently emerged form a theory proposed by Vygotsky (1962). Vygotsky focuses on the relationship among mind, language, communication and culture, and he demonstrates that apprenticeship learning is an integral part of formal and informal adult learning. According to this theory, the teacher serves as a "facilitator, guide, and when appropriate, expert" in apprenticing students "into discourse and social practices" of the communities of native speakers (Warschauer, 1997, p.90).
    A subsequent two-year (1998-99) grant from the same foundation allowed for the integration of the faculty-developed materials into the college's L2 curriculum, as well as for studies examining the effectiveness of the project. Although the multidimensionalmul·ti·di·men·sion·al
    adj.
    Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
    mul {http://img.tfd.com/hm/GIF/lprime.gif} ti·di·men evaluation of the effectiveness of the project considers more research questions, this article addresses only the following concern: does an integrated approach to faculty development, which combines sociocultural views of L2 acquisition, instructional design and computing with a cognitive apprenticeship model, lead to high levels of student satisfaction with C2 learning?
    Courseware Description
    With the assistance of five students, seventeen faculty-participants have authored twenty-six thematic CALL (computer assisted language learning) rifles in all six languages offered by the college. The courseware is not bound to any textbook and is intended to complement classroom instruction. Several CALL units in French, German and Spanish take students on exciting trips conducted by faculty to France, Austria, Germany, Mexico, Peru, Puerto RicoPuerto Rico (pwār`tō rē`kō), island (2005 est. pop. 3,917,000), 3,508 sq mi (9,086 sq km), West Indies, c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) SE of Miami, Fla. , and Spain.
    Video footage, audio files, photographs and maps brought back by faculty and integrated into the CALL units eliminate copyright problems frequently encountered with the use of authentic materials. The multimedia format and the design of the courseware allow the teacher to serve as a mediatormediator n. a person who conducts mediation. A mediator is usually a lawyer, or retired judge, but can be a non-attorney specialist in the subject matter (like child custody) who tries to bring people and their disputes to early resolution through a conference. between the C2 and a student learner. For example, the courseware incorporates ethnographiceth·nog·ra·phy
    n.
    The branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of specific human cultures.
    eth·nog interviews with native speakers; visits to historical places, educational institutions, and cultural festivals; shopping sprees, and exploration of native cuisine. Two CALL units, "Russian Cooking" and "En la farmacia," which are also modeled on a cognitive apprenticeship framework, invite learners to visit a Russian restaurant and a Hispanic pharmacy respectively, by presenting video clips A short video presentation. of scenes acted out by native speakers and videotaped at the college. In order to encourage students' use of multimedia materials authored by faculty, the courseware is incorporated into the L2 syllabisyl·la·bi
    n.
    A plural of syllabus. and 10% of the final grade in basic courses is assigned for courseworkcoursework
    Noun
    work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
    Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's based on the CALL units.
    Methodology
    The participants in this study were drawn from an undergraduate, four-year college with a population of 1,800 students. All students enrolled in basic language courses, including French, German, Italian, Latin, and Russian, participated in the study. In 1998, 252 students participated in the project evaluation in the spring and 329 in the fall semesterse·mes·ter
    n.
    One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
    [German, from Latin (cursus) s ; in 1999, 264 and 351 students participated, respectively. A baseline testbaseline test Clinical practice Any test than measures current or pre-treatment parameters, including chemistries, cell counts, enzyme levels and so on, against which response(s) to therapy, if any, is evaluated during the first week of the semester was used to establish equivalency equivalency
    the combining power of an electrolyte. See also equivalent. of participants' backgrounds with the backgrounds of students taking the same course in the previous semester, by language and by level. The test consisted of discrete-point items, which have only one correct answer; the maximum possible score on the test was 12 points. As an example, one semester group means (with standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
    (statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. in parentheses See parenthesis.
    parentheses - See left parenthesis, right parenthesis. ) are listed here: 9.05 (1.83); 8.16 (1.96); 8.16 (2.11); 9.02 (1.3); 8.46 (1.86) and 9.01 (2.00). T-tests for comparison with the previous semester indicated that the differences were statistically insignificant. Ten full-time and ten part-time faculty in the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures participated in the study. Among the full-time faculty, eight participated in the project as courseware developers and two were new hires. None of the ten part-time faculty participated in the project as a courseware developer. A team of faculty designed five assessment instruments to measure student and faculty perceptions of the effectiveness of original CALL materials. The criteria used in this evaluation were partially drawn from Howard (1989), and based on principles outlined by Brown (1988) and Dick & Cary (1990). The surveys employed a five-point Likert scaleLikert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc , with one equal to "strongly agree" and five equal to "strongly disagree." A panel of experts validated all survey items.
    The study took place over four semesters in 1988 and 1999. Both students and faculty were informed concerning the purpose of the study, both signed consent forms for participation and were informed regarding the anonymity of their responses. In all participating sections, regular classroom activities were conducted according to the syllabi. Students used the faculty-authored courseware at the Language Learning Center, and were allowed to use the CALL materials at their own convenience with regard to the time of day and pace at which the learning occurred. All instructors demonstrated the courseware and trained students in its use.
    (1) Upon completion of the development stage, faculty authors completed a self-evaluation of their own title and/or titles, using a special grid. The researcher conducted a qualitative analysis Qualitative Analysis
    Securities analysis that uses subjective judgment based on nonquantifiable information, such as management expertise, industry cycles, strength of research and development, and labor relations. of the faculty self-evaluations. (2) Upon completion of each courseware unit, students filled out a two-section Courseware Evaluation Survey. The data obtained from this survey were analyzed quantitatively. (3) At the end of each semester, students responded to a post-treatment Student Survey on Multimedia, which contained four sections of items regarding student perceptions of the effectiveness of the courseware. This survey was administered during four consecutive semesters and quantitative analysis Quantitative Analysis
    A security analysis that uses financial information derived from company annual reports and income statements to evaluate an investment decision.
    Notes: of the data was conducted. (4) Faculty responded to pre- and post-treatment surveys. These were also administered during four consecutive semesters and the data were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, student performance on an exit examination was compared with the same test given in the previous semester.
    Findings
    Qualitative analysis of the faculty self-evaluations revealed, that although different in content, the courseware share common features: they all present the target language and culture in a rich authentic context and employ graphics, photos, interactive images, textual support, audio and video, thus assuring multi-sensory cognitive processing. Averaged across all programs, students' rating of their enjoyment in using the faculty-authored courseware was M=2.08 (SD = 0.29). This rating varied from 1.47 to 2.67 for individual programs. Lower numbers indicate greater agreement with the statement that they enjoyed using the courseware.
    When assessing the benefits of the courseware for each of the five areas (vocabulary, reading, listening, grammar, and culture), students were in general agreement that faculty-authored materials helped them improve their vocabulary (M = 2.51) and listening comprehension (M =2.26). However, students agreed that the courseware is most beneficial for the study of culture. The following means signify average student agreement that CALL materials helped to improve their knowledge of C2. The first number stands for year one, and the second for year two, of evaluation means, respectively: French (3.02; 2.28); German (2.54, 2.17); Latin (2.67, 2.23); Russian (2.15, 1.92), and Spanish (2.17, 1.89). Student performance on an exit examination was compared with the same test given the previous semester. A t-test of the scores revealed that students performed significantly better on culture and grammar in Spanish [t (43) = 2.81, and t (39 = 6.39 p < .05), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in performance either in other languages or in other skill areas. In addition, students indicated that materials authored by faculty helped them to feel more relaxed (M = 2.29) and focused (M = 2.37). At the same time, the respondents were neutral about the impact of the courseware on the level of their linguistic confidence (M = 2.94) and desire for continued study of the language (M = 3.18). However, they pointed out that faculty should develop more CALL materials (M = 2.12).
    Full-time faculty indicated that the courseware helped students learn the target culture (M = 1.45) and vocabulary (M = 1.75), and develop reading comprehension Reading comprehension can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text. For normal reading rates (around 200-220 words per minute) an acceptable level of comprehension is above 75%. (M = 2.00); explanations were helpful and clear (M = 2.14), and the level of the courseware was appropriate. Full-time faculty members reported that students enjoyed using the courseware (M = 2.18), were more relaxed because they could work at their own pace (M= 2.27), and were able to focus on the areas of their individual needs (M = 2.25). Overall, full-time faculty became more comfortable using computers and integrating CALL materials, and showed a greater change (from M = 1.73 to 1.24) than part-time faculty (from M = 2.86 to M = 2.76). Students' responses were generally similar to those of full-time faculty on all items.

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  3. page to teach a second language is to teach culture edited TO TEACH A SECOND LANGUAGE IS TO TEACH CULTURE L2 learning and culture are joined; if we the majo…
    TO TEACH A SECOND LANGUAGE IS TO TEACH CULTURE
    L2 learning and culture are joined; if we the majority of the material that is normally used at instructing like: books, Audio, etc. these tools are made by foreigners and they normally include some aspects that belong to the target culture; For instance when they talk about especial events like thanksgiving or the fourth of July, or typical everyday issues like someone’s routine; students get involved in the target culture. McLeod (1976, p. 212) pointed some years ago that “when teaching a language...one is inevitably already teaching culture implicitly".

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  4. page home edited ... which leads to major problems when they confront a different culture. Being culture bound, the…
    ...
    which leads to major problems when they confront a different culture. Being culture bound, they just try to reject or ignore the new culture. As if it is possible to make a hierarchy of cultures they begin to talk about the supremacy of their culture. This is because they have difficulty understanding or accepting people with points of view based on other views of the world. This point is also highlighted by Kramsch (2001) People who identify themselves as members of a social group (family, neighborhood, professional or ethnic affiliation, nation) acquire common ways of viewing the world through their interactions with other members of the same group. These views are reinforced through institutions like the family, the school, the workplace, the church, the government, and other sites of socialization through their lives. Common attitudes, beliefs and values are reflected in the way members of the group use language-for example, what they choose to say or not to say and how they say it (p.6).
    • Besides these benefits, studying culture gives learners a liking for the native speakers of the target language. Studying culture also plays a useful role in general education; studying culture, we could also learn about the geography, history, etc. of the target culture (Cooke, 1970).

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  5. page home edited ... Introduction Why culture should be taugh? THE IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE AT INSTRUCTING A SECON…
    ...
    Introduction
    Why culture should be taugh?
    THE IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE AT INSTRUCTING A SECOND LANGUAGE
    {cultura-global.jpg}
    THE IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE AT INSTRUCTING A SECOND LANGUAGE
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  6. page home edited ... Introduction Why culture should be taugh? Strange food around the world. {cultura-global…
    ...
    Introduction
    Why culture should be taugh?
    Strange food around the world.
    {cultura-global.jpg}
    ...
    SECOND LANGUAGE
    Bilal Genc and Erdogan Bada in their work "CULTURE IN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING", explain the benefits of incomporating culture at teaching a target language; their work states that:
    Studying culture gives students a reason to study the target language as well as rendering the study of L2 meaningful (Stainer, 1971).
    • From the perspective of learners, one of the major problems in language teaching is to conceive of the native speakers of target language as real person. Although grammar books gives so called genuine examples from real life, without background knowledge those real situations may be considered fictive by the learners. In addition providing access into cultural aspect of language, learning culture would help learners relate the abstrated sounds and forms of a language to real people and places (Chastain, 1971).
    • The affect of motivation in the study of L2 has been proved by experts like Gardner and Lambert (1959, 1965, 1972). In achieving high motivation, culture classes does have a great role because learners like culturally based activities such as singing, dancing, role playing, doing research on countries and peoples, etc. The study of culture increases learners’ not only curiosity about and interest in target countries but also their motivation. For example, when some professors introduced the cultures of the L2s they taught, the learners’ interests in those classes increased a lot and the classes based on culture became to be preferred more highly than traditional classes. In an age of post-modernism, in an age of tolerance towards different ideologies, religions, sub-cultures, we need to understand not only the other culture but also our own culture. Most people espouse ethnocentric views due to being culture bound,
    ...
    it (p.6).
    • Besides these benefits, studying culture gives learners a liking for the native speakers of the target language. Studying culture also plays a useful role in general education; studying culture, we could also learn about the geography, history, etc. of the target culture (Cooke, 1970).
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  7. page strange food around the world edited When you travel, you have to face with things like culture and not many peole know how to deal wit…
    When you travel, you have to face with things like culture and not many peole know how to deal with those things.Here you have some examples:
    {FriedSpiders.jpg}
    Eensy weensy spider, climbing up the spout…if you suffer from arachnophobia you probably don’t want to try eating these eight legged monsters. They’re not tiny little house spiders, they’re great big tarantulas and you can buy them in the streets of Skuon, Cambodia.
    Puffer fish, Japan
    {http://bna-art.s3.amazonaws.com/www.bootsnall.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/Fugu.jpg} FuguYou’ve got to be careful with this delicacy or you might end up in the morgue. The deadly Puffer fish, or fugu, however is the ultimate delicacy in Japan even though its skin and insides contain the poisonous toxin todrotoxin, which is 1,250 times stronger than cyanide

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  8. page home edited ... Strange food around the world. {cultura-global.jpg} THE IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE AT INSTRUCTI…
    ...
    Strange food around the world.
    {cultura-global.jpg}
    THE IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE AT INSTRUCTING A SECOND LANGUAGE
    Bilal Genc and Erdogan Bada in their work "CULTURE IN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING", explain the benefits of incomporating culture at teaching a target language; their work states that:
    Studying culture gives students a reason to study the target language as well as rendering the study of L2 meaningful (Stainer, 1971).
    • From the perspective of learners, one of the major problems in language teaching is to conceive of the native speakers of target language as real person. Although grammar books gives so called genuine examples from real life, without background knowledge those real situations may be considered fictive by the learners. In addition providing access into cultural aspect of language, learning culture would help learners relate the abstrated sounds and forms of a language to real people and places (Chastain, 1971).
    • The affect of motivation in the study of L2 has been proved by experts like Gardner and Lambert (1959, 1965, 1972). In achieving high motivation, culture classes does have a great role because learners like culturally based activities such as singing, dancing, role playing, doing research on countries and peoples, etc. The study of culture increases learners’ not only curiosity about and interest in target countries but also their motivation. For example, when some professors introduced the cultures of the L2s they taught, the learners’ interests in those classes increased a lot and the classes based on culture became to be preferred more highly than traditional classes. In an age of post-modernism, in an age of tolerance towards different ideologies, religions, sub-cultures, we need to understand not only the other culture but also our own culture. Most people espouse ethnocentric views due to being culture bound,
    which leads to major problems when they confront a different culture. Being culture bound, they just try to reject or ignore the new culture. As if it is possible to make a hierarchy of cultures they begin to talk about the supremacy of their culture. This is because they have difficulty understanding or accepting people with points of view based on other views of the world. This point is also highlighted by Kramsch (2001) People who identify themselves as members of a social group (family, neighborhood, professional or ethnic affiliation, nation) acquire common ways of viewing the world through their interactions with other members of the same group. These views are reinforced through institutions like the family, the school, the workplace, the church, the government, and other sites of socialization through their lives. Common attitudes, beliefs and values are reflected in the way members of the group use language-for example, what they choose to say or not to say and how they say it (p.6).
    • Besides these benefits, studying culture gives learners a liking for the native speakers of the target language. Studying culture also plays a useful role in general education; studying culture, we could also learn about the geography, history, etc. of the target culture (Cooke, 1970).

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  9. page home edited English and Culture INTRODUCTION Foreign language learning is comprised of several components,…

    English and Culture
    INTRODUCTION
    Foreign language learning is comprised of several components, including grammatical competence, communicative competence, language proficiency, as well as a change in attitudes towards one’s own or another culture.
    For scholars and laymen alike, cultural competence, i.e., the knowledge of the conventions, customs, beliefs, and systems of meaning of another country, is indisputably an integral part of foreign language learning, and many teachers have seen it as their goal to incorporate the teaching of
    Introduction
    Why
    culture into the foreign language curriculum.
    Culture in language learning is not an expendable fifth skill, tacked on, so to speak, to the teaching of speaking, listening, reading, and writing. It is always in the background, right from day one, ready to unsettle the good language learners when they expect it least, making evident the limitations of their hard-won communicative competence, challenging their ability to make sense of the world
    should be taugh?
    Strange food
    around them. (Kramsch, 1993: 1)
    took it from The Importance Of Teaching Culture In The Foreign Language Classroom by Dimitrios Thanasoulas
    Culture and Education permit us to explore new and different ways of approaching the process in our lifes. As Jerome Bruner says, education cannot be reduced to mere information processing, sorting knowledge into categories. Its objective is to help learners construct meanings, not simply to manage information. Meaning making requires an understanding of the ways of one’s culture--whether the subject in question is social studies, literature, or science. Culture and Education permit us to explore new and different ways of approaching
    the process in our lifes.world.
    {cultura-global.jpg}
    =

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